Typhoid Fever is an acute illness associated with diarrhea, systemic diseases, fever and rash caused by the Salmonellae bacteria.
Causes of Typhoid Fever:
- Typhoid Fever is contracted by the ingestion of the bacteria in contaminated food or water. Patients with acute illness cab contaminate the surrounding water supply through the stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria. The bacteria multiply in the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver and passes into the bowel. The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage. Following ingestion, the bacteria spread from intestine via the bloodstream to the intestinal lymph nodes, liver and spleen via the blood where they multiply.
- Salmonella may directly infect the gallbladder through the heapatic duct or spread to other areas of the body through the bloodstream.
- A few people can become carriers of S, typi and continue to shed the bacteria in their faces for years, spreading the diseases.
Symptoms of Typhoid Fever:
- The incubation period is usually 1-2 weeks and the duration of the illness is about -6 weeks.
- Early symptoms are generalized and include fever, malaise and abdominal pain. As the disease progresses, the fever becomes higher (greater then 103 degrees Fahrenheit) and diarrhea becomes prominent. Weakness, profound fatigue, delirium and an acutely ill appearance develop.
- A rash, characteristic only of typhoid and called “rose spots” appears in some cases of typhoid. Rose spots are small (1/4 inch) red spots that appear most often on the abdomen and chest. Chest congestion, abdominal pain and discomfort are common. The fever becomes constant.
Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever:
- An elevated white blood cell count in blood.
- A blood culture during first week of the fever can show S. typhi bactearia.
- A stool culture
- An ELISA test on urine may show Vi antigen specific for the bacteria
- A platelet count ( decreased platelets)
- A fluorescent antibody study
Treatment of Typhoid Fever:
Intravenous fluids and electrolytes may be give.n. Appropriate antibodies are given to kill the bacteria. There are increasing rates of antibiotic resistance through the world, so the choice of antibiotics should be a careful one.
Prognosis of Typhoid Fever:
The illness usually resolves in 2 to 4 weeks with treatment. The outcome is likely to be good with early treatment, but becomes poor if complications develop. Cases in children are milder and are more debilitating in the elderly. Relapse may occur if the treatment has not fully eradicated the infection.
Possible Complications of Typhoid Fever:
- Intestinal hemorrhage
- Intestinal perforation
- Kidney failure
Prevention of of Typhoid Fever:
- Vaccine are recommended during epidemic outbreaks
- Immunization is not always completely effective and at-risk travelers should drink only boiled or bottled water and eat well cooked food. Experimentation with an oral live attenuated typhpoid vaccine is now underway and appears promising.
- Adequate water treatment waste disposal and protection of food supply from contamination are important public health measures. Carriers of typhoid must not be allowed to work as food handlers.
No related posts.