Liquid is amongst the three fundamental state of matter, the other two being gases and solids. By definition a liquid is a fluid. Molecules found in liquid are usually free to move. This is because of the forces that are binding the liquid molecules together. These forces are normally temporary. Consequently, this allows the liquids to move and flow unlike the solids which remain firm and compact.
Properties of liquids:
Liquids have the ability to flow, to take the shape of a container regardless of its shape.
Liquids have the ability to spread equal pressure applied to it to all the surfaces of a container.
It is important to note however that liquids do not mix easily with all other liquids unlike gases. And as much as it can take the shape of a container and fill it up, it does not occupy every space in a container and usually makes its own surface. It also does not compress easily like gases unless put under very high pressures.
How does liquid becomes gas or solid:
The molecules found in liquids are usually bound firmly but not so rigidly. These molecules can still move and flow. However, when temperatures are applied on them and gradually rise, these molecules vibrate a lot and the distance between them increases. Eventually a liquid reaches its boiling point. At this point, these forces that were binding the liquid molecules together normally break and thus the liquid becomes gas. If the same liquid undergoes freezing, the distance that was between these molecules lowers and the bonds again become firm, and eventually the liquid changes to become a solid.
How is liquid measured:
Liquid quantities are normally measured in terms of volume. The SI unit for liquid measured is cubic meters. The volume of a liquid measured is normally determined by temperature and pressure. When objects are inserted into water, they experience buoyancy which is a situation whereby such objects float in that water. Another concept about water is viscosity which is the amount of resistance of a liquid due to stress exerted upon it. Liquids can be immiscible. This is very well demonstrated by water and oil whereby the two normally do not mix and the oil floats on top of the water. Water is miscible with other liquids depending on the density of such liquids. To separate liquid components in a mixture, one needs to apply fractional distillation.
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